Thứ Ba, 12 tháng 3, 2013
Acetone (nail polish remover contains it) Denture tablets Glycerine Hydrogen peroxide From the DIY (hardware) store: Lubricant spray such as WD-40 Methylated spirit (isopropyl alcohol) White spirit (turpentine) From the supermarket: Biological clothes detergent (detergent with enzymes) Fizzy bottled water (club soda) Household soap Spot stain remover Washing-up (dishwashing) liquid White vinegar
What first aid supplies are useful to have at hand? First aid must-haves Be prepared with our printable checklist of essentials Some pre-packed first-aid kits are reasonably priced and contain many of the essentials. However, it's unlikely that you will find everything you need in one product. You could start with a pre-packed kit and add any extra items you require. The alternative is to build your own kit from scratch. You'll also need to keep your first-aid kit locked in a cupboard that is out of the reach of babies and young children. Who will I need to contact in an emergency? The most important items in your family's first-aid kit may actually be names and numbers. You can securely tape, glue, or sew the following contact information inside your kit: Your family doctor. Your local hospital. Your two closest neighbours. You may need to call them if you need them to care for your other child or children, or for a lift to the hospital. You could put these numbers by the telephone, or in an obvious place, so that family and babysitters can easily access the information. What should I keep in my first-aid kit? Here are some first-aid kit suggestions you might like to consider: Baby thermometer. Children's and babies' liquid pain reliever containing paracetamol or ibuprofen. You will need a measuring spoon or no-needle dosing syringe. Always follow the dosage instructions on the label. Calamine lotion for sunburn and rashes. Antiseptic cream for cuts and scrapes. Apply to cuts, grazes or minor burns after cleaning to help prevent infection. Some may also contain a mild local anaesthetic to numb the pain. Tweezers to remove splinters and thorns. Ice or gel packs can be kept in the fridge and applied to bumps to relieve swelling. A packet of frozen peas is just as good, but wrap it in a clean tea towel as direct contact with ice can cause a cold burn on skin. Saline solution and an eye bath. This is useful for washing specks of dirt out of sore eyes. Antiseptic wipes. These are a handy way to clean cuts and grazes. To clean a wound, gently work away from the centre to remove dirt and germs. A pair of sharp scissors for cutting plasters and tape to size. Insect repellent. Sticky plasters in various sizes and shapes. Assorted bandages, including a triangular bandage, plus a 2.5cm and 5cm strip for holding dressings and compresses in place. Adhesive tape. Finger bandage. Sterile gauze. Disposable sterile gloves. Antihistamine cream to help soothe insect bites and stings. A first-aid manual. It's a good idea to read it before you have a need to use it. If your child has asthma, or is allergic to bee stings, peanuts, or shellfish, or has some other life-threatening allergy, carry his medication with you. Keep a spare set in your first-aid kit. Always make sure these items are in date, and are updated as your doctor changes your child's prescription. Do I need more than one first-aid kit? It all depends on your needs and your lifestyle. You may want a mega-kit for home, a mini-kit for your handbag, backpack, nappy bag, and one for the car. It is important to store all kits in a box, or bag, which can be fastened securely and kept out of reach of curious babies and children. Any item in a first-aid kit can be dangerous if left in a child's hands. http://www.babycentre.co.uk/a762/first-aid-kit-shopping-list#ixzz2NKRisVmx
This brightly coloured beauty comes in a variety of shades of orange and brown, and is characterised by the pattern of white dots on its back which resemble a cross. The minutely spiny legs are banded light and dark. Seen here at the centre of a 300mm circular web spun vertically between the leaves of Iris by the garden pond, this female (body length 13mm) was ready to react to any fly that became snared on the web. Small prey were taken back to the centre of the web and devoured on the spot. Larger prey were taken off to a more secure food cache in the event that the web would need to be rebuilt. The much smaller and less spectacular males might be found around the periphery of the web waiting to scavenge any leftovers. In some cases the female takes up a rather less conspicuous position outside the web but maintains contact through a 'signal thread' that returns vibrations from the centre of the web. At rest, after a full meal or pending a web rebuild, these spiders will often be found with their long legs tightly tucked up close to the body. This is a common and widespread species that can be found throughout the northern hemisphere.
One of the wonders of spiders is their ability to spin silk, a material that is, weight for weight, stronger than steel and Kevlar(tm). Silk is a 'fibroin' or 'structure' protein; rich in the amino acid cystine that gives the silk its strength. It is secreted by special glands at the end of the abdomen and is used for many purposes. Females bundle their eggs in sacs of silk to carry them around and protect them from predators and parasites. Males use it to form a platform on which they deposit sperm in order that they can charge their palps prior to mating. It is used to build retreats in which to hide, moult, lay eggs, aestivate and rest. Strands are used to make trip lines for detecting prey. Silken guidelines are secreted as the spider roams and can act as a lifeline should the spider fall or drop to safety when disturbed. Most familiar of all uses is in the production of silken snares and traps for prey. Retreats and traps are as varied as the spiders that make them. In Britain, our only relative of the so-called 'bird-eating spiders' or 'tarantulas', the Purse Web spider (Atypus affinis) digs a hole in soft soil which it lines with silk. The silken lining is extended along the surface of the soil and covered in pieces of leaves, soil and other debris, forming a structure like the finger of a glove. Insects walking or landing on this are caught by the spider inside. Trap-door spiders found in other parts of the world build similar lairs but fitted with lids behind which they hide. They wait for passing prey, which they detect by laying down silken threads radiating from the top of the tunnel across the ground. Tunnel retreats are constructed by several other species. Amaurobius fenestralis produces inter-woven threads that lead to a silken retreat in cracks in walls and tree bark. Segestria has a similar web but with the addition of tough silken strands radiating from the lair which act as detection trip lines in a manner similar to that used by trap-door spiders. Forgetting to dust the top of a corner cabinet in the kitchen can provide an ideal home for the House Spider, Tegenaria domestica. This spider spins an elaborate silken retreat with a silken platform extending from the entrance. Agelena labyrinthica, an outdoor cousin of Tegenaria, has a similar retreat but, in addition, produces vertical strands that detect prey that touch them, sending vibrations to the spider hiding below. Webs come in various other shapes and sizes including triangular webs, tangle webs and sheet webs that resemble silken hammocks. Amongst grass and low bushes, tangled silken threads bespeckled with morning dew are a common site in late summer and autumn. These are the webs of 'money spiders', Linyphiidae. The spider sits beneath a silken platform from which a tangle of silken strands extends above and below. Prey blundering into these lines are detected and caught. Indoors, the Daddy-Long-legs Spider, Pholcus phalangioides, makes random fine silken tangle webs. This spider prefers to make webs behind furniture and in the corners of ceilings. Dictyna builds tangled webs in dead, dried flower heads and other places. Some webs are unusual. The rare Triangle Spider, Hyptiotes, spins a silken triangular web resembling a portion of a circular orb-web. It then cuts the apex of the triangle and holds it tight. When an insect flies into the web, Hyptiotes slackens it so that it forms a net and then tightens it to entangle its victim. It then wraps its prey prior to eating it. Of all the webs, the silken orb is the most spectacular. Spiders belonging to several families of spider spin webs of this type. The Uloboridae, to which Hypiotes belongs, spin orb webs with a central band of silk, called the stabilmentum. Such structures are also produced in the typical orb spinners, which include the Garden Spider, the Araneidae. In these webs, the centre, or hub of the web is closed. In the Tetragnathidae, the hub is open. The tiny incomplete orbs of the ray spiders, Theridosomatidae, completely lack a hub. The Wasp Spider, Argiope bruennichi, spins an orb webs with a central band of silk called the stabilmentum.